This paper explores penal policy in relation to environmental protection in the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. It presents the theoretical bases that determine the definition of crimes against the environment, drawing on the Penal Code. Data on the number of reported, charged and convicted cases over a period of 10 years are presented, compiled on the basis of the Yearbooks of the Macedonian State Statistical Office. The aim is to raise questions about the most visible components of Macedonian penal policy in relation to the environment. Environmental protection is of particular importance for the country in the context of its EU iintegration, given that environmental protection and sustainable development are high priorities in the EU and areas that will increase in importance in the future.